Amplexus: The physical contact during sexual reproduction in amphibians, a male clasping a female during mating when eggs are released and fertilized by sperm.

Anal Plate: Also called anal scale, the ventral scale that covers the cloacal opening or vent. It is either entire or divided across the middle.

Anterior: Located at or near the head end of an organism.

Anuran: A subclass of amphibians without tails in adult form; toads and frogs.

Boss: A bony or glandular bump on top of the head and between the eyes; spadefoots.

Carapace: The dorsal, top shell in turtles.

Carnivore: An organism that gets its energy and nutrition from eating animal tissue.

CL: Abbreviation for carapace length; the straight-line distance between the anterior and posterior edge of the carapace.

Cloaca: A common urogenital cavity receiving the contents from the excretory, digestive, and reproductive tracts of amphibians and reptiles.

Community: A group of organisms, plant and animal, interacting in a common environment.

Cranial Crest: A raised ridge on top of the head and between the eyes; toads.

Crepuscular: Active during dawn and dusk.

Disjunct: A population that is separate or isolated from a larger population.

Diurnal: Active during daylight.

Dorsal: Located on or near the top surface.

Fossorial: An underground lifestyle adapted for digging or burrowing.

Granular: Small, rounded scales; smooth without a ridge.

Gravid: A female containing and distended with eggs.

Gular Fold: A pleat or wrinkle of loose skin located on the throat.

Habitat: The natural environment where an organism lives.

Hibernaculum: A den or place used during winter and usually located underground beneath frost line.

Hemipenis: A paired copulatory organ in snakes and lizards located within the cloaca; singular hemipene.

Incubation: Period of time from fertilization until hatching from the egg occurs.

Insectivore: A specialized carnivore that gets its energy and nutrition from eating insects or other similar organisms.

Keeled: Scales with a distinct midline ridge.

Larvae: The developmental stage of amphibians that is between the egg stage and metamorphosis to the adult stage; tadpoles are the larval stage of anurans.

Metamorphosis: The transformation in amphibians that occurs when larvae change into the adult body form.

Nocturnal: Active during night.

Oviparous: Animals that lay eggs with little or no embryonic development occurring inside the motherís body.

Ovoviviparous: Animals that produce eggs and the development of the embryos occurs within the eggs while inside the motherís body until they are ready to hatch.

Parapatric: A type of distribution where the range of two subspecies or closely related species of animals lay adjacent to each other but individuals do not interbreed.

Parotoid Gland: A large gland located behind the eye in toads (frogs); the secretions are sometimes poisonous.

Plastron: The ventral, lower shell in turtles.

Posterior: Located at or near the tail end of an organism.

Rostral: The scale at the tip of the snout in snakes.

Scute: Large scales covering the main body of turtles.

SVL: Abbreviation for snout-vent length; used to describe the distance between the tip of the snout to the trailing edge of the cloacal opening.

Sympatric: A type of distribution where two subspecies, species, or closely related species of animals occupy the same geographic space without interbreeding.

TL: Abbreviation for total length; used to describe the distance between the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail.

Tubercle: A bony, horny, or keratinized growth on the hind feet of toads and spadefoots.

Tympanum: A membrane covering the inner parts of the ear in frogs.

Vent: The cloacal opening.

Ventral: Located on or near the bottom or lower surface.

Viviparous: Animals that give birth to live young that have developed within the motherís body rather than developing and hatching from eggs.




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